Don’t forget to check out Part 1, which explains why these typologies are important. Multiple links in the entry means multiple ways to find the resource. I have not personally reviewed every resource, so some may not be typologies. However, they are being referenced by PAS for identifying chance finds, so should be useful for the experimental archaeologist and reenactor.

Belt Buckles

Marzinzik, Sonja. 2003. Early Anglo-Saxon belt buckles (late 5th to early 8th centuries A.D.): their classification and context. Oxford: Archaeopress.


Behr, Charlotte. 2010. “New Bracteate Finds from Early Anglo-Saxon England.” Medieval Archaeology. 50(1): 34-88.


Weetch, Rosie. 2014. Brooches in late Anglo-Saxon England within a north west European context : a study of social identities between the eighth and the eleventh centuries. Univ. of Reading, UK: Thesis digitally published via EThOS.

Button Brooches

Avent, Richard, and Vera I. Evison. 1982. “Anglo-Saxon button-brooches“. Archaeologia or Miscellaneous Tracts Relating to Antiquity / Publ. by the Society of Antiquaries of London. 77-124.

Suzuki, Seiichi. 2008. Anglo-Saxon Button Brooches: Typology, Genealogy, Chronology (Anglo-Saxon Studies). Woodbridge: Boydell Press.

This discusses several brooches not included in the typology book, placing them in context, and is available online.

Cruciform Brooches

Leeds, E. T., and Michael Pocock. 1971. “A Survey of the Anglo-Saxon Cruciform Brooches of Florid Type“. Medieval Archaeology. 15 (1): 13-36.

Much of the text was written by Leeds before his death in 1955. Available online, but also quite affordably in print. (click book image.)

Martin, T. F. 2011. Identity and the cruciform brooch in Early Anglo-Saxon England: an investigation of style, mortuary context, and use. Thesis (Ph.D.)–University of Sheffield, 2011

Martin, Toby F. 2015. The Cruciform Brooch and Anglo-Saxon England (Anglo-Saxon Studies). Woodbridge (Suffolk): Boydell &  Brewer.

Martin, Toby. 2015. A corpus of Anglo-Saxon cruciform brooches. Companion to the book, has more details. Available via ADS.

Disc Brooches

Avent, Richard. 1975. Anglo-Saxon garnet inlaid disc and composite brooches. Oxford: British Archaeological Reports.

Currently out of print, but BAR says available soon.

Evison, Vera I. 1978. “Early Anglo-Saxon Applied Disc Brooches. Part II: in England“. The Antiquaries Journal. 58 (02): 260-278.

 Great Square Headed Brooches

Leeds, E. Thurlow. 1949. A Corpus of Early Anglo-Saxon Great Square-Headed Brooches.. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Brooks, D.A. 1994. The theory and methodology of classifications of the fifth and sixth centuries A. D. of Anglo-Saxon England with reference to great square-headed brooches. Doctoral thesis, University of London.

Hines, John. 1997. A New Corpus of Anglo-Saxon Great Square-Headed Brooches. Woodbridge, Suffolk, UK: Boydell Press for the Society of Antiquaries of London.

Saucer Brooches

Dickinson, T.M. 1993. “Early Anglo-Saxon saucer brooches: a preliminary overview.”  Anglo-Saxon Studies in Archaeology and History 6, 11-44. Oxford: Oxford University Committee for Archaeology.

NOT available on Oxbow Books, nor Casemate Academic, who are the official distributors, nor on Amazon. Looks well and truly out of print, so you can only hope your local library has the full series.


Cook, Jean, Birte Brugmann, and Vera I. Evison. 2004. Early Anglo-Saxon buckets: a corpus of copper alloy- and iron-bound, stave-built vessels. Oxford: Oxford University School of Archaeology.

There is also a related data archive at ADS. Archive:Anglo-Saxon Buckets.


Read, Brian, Patrick Read, and N. Griffiths. 2010. Metal buttons: c.900 BC-c. AD 1700. (2nd Edition). Langport, U.K.: Portcullis Publishing.

Clothing and Textiles

Owen, Gale R. 1976. Anglo-Saxon costume a study of secular, civilian clothing and jewellery fashions. Doctoral thesis: Univ of Newcastle. Access via EThOS.

Walton Rogers, Penelope. 2007. Cloth And Clothing in Early Anglo-Saxon England, AD 450-700. York: Council for British Archaeology.

There is also a related data archive at ADS. Cloth and Clothing in Early Anglo-Saxon England.

Magoula, Olga. 2009. Usage and meaning of early medieval textiles. A structural analysis of vestimentary systems in Francia and Anglo-Saxon England. Thesis: Univ. of Birmingham. Access via EThOS.

Owen-Crocker, Gale R. 2010. Dress in Anglo-Saxon England. Woodbridge: Boydell Press.

Dress Pins

Ross, Seamus. 1992. Dress Pins From Anglo-Saxon England: Their Production and Typo-Chronological Development. Univ. of Oxford, UK: Thesis digitally indexed via EThOS.

Gannon, Anna. 2007. “Pushing boundaries: Anglo-Saxon zoomorphic pins“. Making and Meaning in Insular Art / Rachel Moss Ed. 40-49.

Girdle Hangers

  • None of these seem very accessible.

Felder, K. 2009. Early Anglo-Saxon girdle hangers in Norfolk and Suffolk. Unpublished: Berlin.  (unknown source, likely thesis. Listed in PAS resource list.)

Sherman, Devon E. 2010. Unlocking early Anglo-Saxon girdle-hangers. Unpublished: Harvard.

There is also a related data archive at ADS. Unlocking Early Anglo-Saxon Girdle Hangers, 2011.

Felder, Kathrin. 2014. Girdle-hangers in 5th- and 6th-century England. A Key to Early Anglo-Saxon Identities. Unpublished: University of Cambridge. (Listed in PAS resource list.) Was also the topic presented at the Society for Medieval Archaeology Student Colloquium, 2011. Thesis Excerpt available on

Glass and other Beads

  • Previous Typologies for various places in Europe include Beck (1928), Koch (1974), Callmer (1977), Guido (1978), and Siegmund (1995).

Guido, Margaret, and Martin G. Welch. 1999. The Glass Beads of Anglo-Saxon England c.AD 400-700: A Preliminary Visual Classification of the More Definitive and Diagnostic Types. Suffolk [England]: Boydell Press for the Society of Antiquaries of London.

Brugmann, Birte. 2004. Glass beads from early Anglo-Saxon graves: a study on the provenance and chronology of glass beads from early Anglo-Saxon graves, based on visual examination. Oxford: Oxbow.

Out of print – but luckily, the database on which the book bases conclusions IS available in the project archives of ADS.

Gold Braids

Crowfoot, Elisabeth, and Sonia Chadwick Hawkes. 1967. “Early Anglo-Saxon Gold Braids“. Medieval Archaeology. 11 (1): 42-86.

While not a typology, per se, it includes distribution maps and a fairly extensive catalogue, so is included to help guide reenactors to all their possible accessory options. Available online, but also quite affordably in print. (click book image.)

Jewellery Production

  • Not really typological for items, but provides useful details on when certain processes were used.

McFadyen, Angus Hector. 1999. Aspects of the production of early Anglo-Saxon cloisonne garnet jewellery. Manchester Metropolitan University. Access via EThOS.

Baker, Jocelyn MargaretBaker, Jocelyn Margaret. 2013. The colour and composition of early Anglo-Saxon copper alloy jewellery. Thesis (Ph.D.)–Durham University, 2013. Access via EThOS.


Blakelock, Eleanor Susan . 2012. The early medieval cutting edge of technology : an archaeometallurgical, technological and social study of the manufacture and use of Anglo-Saxon and Viking iron knives, and their contribution to the early medieval iron economy. Thesis: Univ. of Bradford.  Access via EThOS.

Andrew J. Welton. 2016. “Encounters with Iron: An Archaeometallurgical Reassessment of Early Anglo-Saxon Spearheads and Knives“. Archaeological Journal. 173 (2): 206-244.

Relic aka Work Boxes

Tony Gibson has a series of short papers (2013) on, comprising a Corpus, Classification, and examples of the 3 separate types. Not sure if any fuller work has been created. (The Finglesham one I made is defined as a Type I.)


Dickinson, Tania Marguerite, and H. Härke. 1992. Early Anglo-Saxon Shields. London: Society of Antiquaries of London.

Also available on Google Books as a preview.

Dickinson, T.M. 2005. “Symbols of protection: the significance of animal-ornamented shields in early Anglo-Saxon England.” Medieval Archaeology. 40(1) :109-163.

Sleeve Clasps

Hines, John. 1993. Clasps, hektespenner, agraffen: Anglo-Scandinavian clasps of classes A-C of the 3rd to 6th centuries A.D. : typology, diffusion and function. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell.

Read, Brian, N. Griffiths, and Patrick Read. 2008. Hooked-clasps & eyes: a classification & catalogue of sharp- or blunt-hooked clasps & miscellaneous objects with hooks, eyes, loops, rings or toggles. Langport: Portcullis Publishing.


Swanton, M.J. 1966. The Spear in Anglo-Saxon Times. Doctoral thesis: University of Durham.

Swanton, Michael. 1973. Spearheads of the Anglo-Saxon Settlements. London: Royal Archaeological Institute.

Swanton, Michael James. 1974. A Corpus of Pagan Anglo-Saxon Spear-Types. Oxford: British Archaeological Reports.

Andrew J. Welton. 2016. “Encounters with Iron: An Archaeometallurgical Reassessment of Early Anglo-Saxon Spearheads and Knives“. Archaeological Journal. 173 (2): 206-244.

Strap Ends

Thomas, G. 1996. “Silverwire Strap-Ends from East Anglia.” ANGLO-SAXON STUDIES IN ARCHAEOLOGY AND HISTORY 9. Oxford: Oxford University Committee for Archaeology.

Haldenby, D. 1997 A Study of 9th Century Anglo-Saxon Strapends. Part One, Treasure Hunting, December 1997, 23-9

Haldenby, D. 1998a A Study of 9th Century Anglo-Saxon Strapends. Part Two, Treasure Hunting, February 1998, 38-43

Haldenby, D.1998b A Study of 9th Century Anglo-Saxon Strapends. Part Three, Treasure Hunting, April 1998, 38-41

(Personal communication with Haldenby’s – I have a copy of the articles, and his work was incorporated in Dr. Gabor Thomas’ thesis below.)

Thomas, Gabor. 2000. A survey of late Anglo-Saxon and Viking-age strap-ends from Britain. London: University of London.  Republished in an abbreviated format  as Datasheets by the Finds Research Group, 700-1700. FRG32 (2003) & FRG33 (2004).


London Museum, and Mortimer Wheeler. 1927. London and the Vikings. [London]: [The Museum].

Reputedly includes a typology of sword hilts as well as sword shapes. Many various attempts to make this accessible to modern researchers and smiths, including the resources of the Viking Age Compendium, which includes findspots and a good amount of data in their various pages. Start here, and follow all the link choices. Only downside is that they are focused on viking, and may not be including references to purely Anglo-Saxon finds.

Davidson, H. R. Ellis. 1962. The Sword in Anglo-Saxon England: Its Archaeology and Literature. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Wilson, David M. 1965. “Some Neglected Late Anglo-Saxon Swords“. Medieval Archaeology. 9 (1): 32-54.

Spencer. Kirk Lee. 2009. SeaxTypeChronGeog – chart. also SeaxTypesDefined – chart. Shared online via discussion forum. Combines various extant typologies in well designed and informative graphics. Further modification in 2010 – Seax.Classification.Wheeler.


Härke, Heinrich. 1989. “Early Saxon weapon burials: frequencies, distributions and weapon combinations.” In: S.C. Hawkes (ed.). Weapons and warfare in Anglo-Saxon England. (Oxford University Committee for Archaeology monograph no. 21). Oxford. 49-61.

Assemblage Synthesis

Dickinson, Tania Marguerite. 1977. The Anglo-Saxon burial sites of the upper Thames region, and their bearing on the history of Wessex, circa AD 400-700. Doctoral Thesis: Univ. of Oxford. Digital publication.

Mirrington, Alexander. 2013. Transformations of identity and society in Essex, c.AD 400-1066. Thesis (Ph.D.)–University of Nottingham, 2013. Access via EThOS.

Bayliss, Alexandra, John Hines, Karen Høilund Nielsen, Gerry McCormac, and Christopher Scull. 2013. Anglo-Saxon Graves and Grave Goods of the 6th and 7th Centuries AD: A Chronological Framework (Society for Medieval Archaeology: Monograph).
Based on this review, I need to acquire this book. Creates at least one new typology, but pulls together analysis from multiple typologies. It is seriously overpriced on Amazon, and not available on Casemate Academic, the successor to David Brown Books in the US. It IS still on Oxbow Books website, for a reasonable price, but I’m not sure if their ordering system will let me purchase it. The database of material analyzed IS available in the project archives of ADS.

Baxter, Mike. Anglo-Saxon Chronology I – the male graves: A commentary on Chapter 6 of ‘Anglo-Saxon Graves and Grave Goods of the 6th and 7th Centuries AD: A Chronological Framework’. (relates to the statistical analysis)

 Harrington, S. & S. Brookes. 2012. ASKED – the Anglo-Saxon Kent Electronic Database. Journal of Open Archaeology Data. 1, p.e2.

This article describes the Database resource available via ADS. This database can facilitate assemblage synthesis research.